Kranvagn: Swedish heavy tank development(机动吊车——瑞典重坦开发计划)

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Source:http://ftr.wot-news.com/2013/12/12/kranvagn-swedish-heavy-tank-development/
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Author: Sp15
原作者:Sp15

Silentstalker:
SS: 

Hello everyone,
大家嚎 

today, I have a guest article from you from player sp15 (US forums), dedicated to Swedish heavy tank development. Enjoy!
今天我给大家带来一篇由玩家sp15所写的文章(此人来自美服论坛), 本文主要讲述了瑞典的重坦开发过程。

Sp15:
Sp15:

Recently about 90 pages of information on the Krv project was found by EU and NA player Renhaxue. I’ve myself been working closely with him and I thought we might as well share the information we have now that we have the archived documents.
近来,欧服/美服玩家Renhaxue找到了接近90页的关于Krv工程的资料。我自己与他的合作关系很密切,我想我们应该把我们所拥有的文献信息与大家共享一下。

So without further ado let’s start. After World War Two, Sweden’s tank force had quickly become outdated, the most advanced tank in service was the Strv m/42 which was the equivalent of an early model Sherman, and it was clear that something better was needed. So in 1949, Sweden did set requirements for a new heavy tank. It seems this project was a response to the development of western heavy tanks by the Americans and British and like their heavy tank projects, the main goal was to counter the threat of the Soviet IS-3.
在正式开始之前,请容我做一下介绍。在二战后,瑞典的坦克力量很快的就变得落后了,当时瑞典正在服役中的最先进的坦克是Strv m/42,也就是和M4谢尔曼的早期型号差不多。很明显的是,他们需要一个更好的东西来顶替这辆坦克。所以在1949年,瑞典给新的重型坦克设下了新的标准。这个计划看起来像是对西方国家,例如英国和美国的重型坦克的开发的回应,而且与他们的重型坦克计划相同的一点是,这辆坦克的主要目的是为了对苏联的IS-3所带来的威胁进行反击。

AKV “1949″ SPG
AKV “1949” 自行火炮 

We don’t know exactly how this first 1949 version looked like, but there is a schematic for a SPG based on the Krv, or rather Project EMIL from 1949 (since Krv Aka Kranvagn (“Crane vehicle”) was the cover name for the prototype hull).
我们并不知道第一辆1949到底长什么样子,但是这张图是一张基于Krv而开发的自行火炮的一张原理图,或者说自从1949年就开始进行的的EMIL计划(换句话说就是Krv,Kranvagn的简写(“吊车”),这个车身计划的伪装名字) 

Project EMIL, 1951
EMIL计划,1951年版 

Then there is a gap in the knowledge of the project until 1951. We have full documentation on the project including schematics from that time. An interesting thing to note is that the hull appears to be largely unchanged from the 1949 SPG.
直到1951年之前,对这个计划的认知出现了一个空窗期。我们现在手头有了包括设计图在内的那时关于该计划的所有文献资料。有件有意思的事就是车身与1949年的火炮相比起来没什么太大的变化。 

At this point the projected vehicle was a frontally heavily armoured but still mobile, weighing 28 tonnes, at this point the only armament was a 12cm rifled gun meant to fire heat ammo with a stabilized warhead, although there were plans for a subcaliber shell.
Here are the full stats and the schematics for the 1951 version:
在这个时候,这辆坦克的正面装甲很厚,但是机动性依然不错。车辆总重总重28吨,这辆坦克现在的主炮是一杆可以发射稳定弹头的HEAT弹的12厘米的线膛炮,同时也有要让这杆炮发射次口径弹的计划。以下是1951年版的这辆坦克的数据以及设计图。

战斗重量: 28吨
总长度: 7.4米
除了炮以外的总长度: 5.8m
宽度: 2.6米
除掉防空机枪以外的车身高度: 2.35米
履带宽度: 0.55米
离地高度(译注:底盘与地面之间的高度,后文不再赘述): 0.4米
乘员数量: 3人

主炮: 12cm 弹夹炮, L/40

发动机:SFA 8 缸
发动机出力: 550马力
推重比:19.5 马力/吨

装甲:(倾斜角度以水平面为基准,0°即水平,90°即垂直)
炮塔正面厚度:150mm,倾斜45°
炮塔侧面厚度:125mm,倾斜 80°
炮塔后面厚度:30mm,倾斜90°
炮塔顶部:18mm,倾斜0°
车身正面首上:70mm,倾斜22°
正面首下:125mm,倾斜38°
车身侧面:20mm,倾斜90°
车身前半段顶部:30mm,倾斜0°,后半段:18mm,倾斜0°
车身后方:30mm,倾斜90°
底盘前半段:40mm,倾斜0°, 后半段:15mm,倾斜0°

The next info that we have on the project comes from a 1952 report, by this time it is determined the project should move on and the 15cm smoothbore gun has been chosen as the main alternative for the project with the ability to mount a rifled 10,5cm gun in the same turret as a backup.
接下来的信息是由一份1952年的报告所提供的,这个时候他们发现这个计划应该继续研发,并且主炮的备选炮变成了15cm的滑膛炮,并且同时给这个计划提出了可以在同样炮塔中安装一杆10,5cm的线膛炮的备用方案

There is a lot of talk about possible engines for the project all of which are air cooled American ones ranging from 500 to 810hp and based on which of these engines and which weight limits were to be used, 3 options for the tank are presented. For these, different armour values are discussed for frontal armor (hull lower: 120mm ,hull upper: 75mm, turret front: 140mm) or (hull lower: 145mm, hull upper: 95mm, turret front: 170mm) and side armour (turret/hull) (40/20),(60/30) or (80/40), although the heaviest combination of armour is only deemed viable on alternative 3.
对于这辆坦克的发动机采用也进行了很多次的讨论,但是这些发动机都是美制的风冷发动机,马力从500~810马力不等,基于这些发动机以及它们的载重上限,最终有三种坦克的方案被确定了下来。他们又对这三种方案的正面装甲值进行了讨论(正面首下:120mm,首上75mm,炮塔正面140mm)或者是(正面首下145mm,首上95mm,炮塔正面170mm)以及侧面装甲(炮塔/车身)(40/20),(60/30)或者(80/40),尽管只有第三种组合被视为装甲最厚重的组合。 

Alt EMIL 1
EMIL 版本1 

Armed with a 12cm gun and using the 500hp engine, this tank can be reduced in size from the preferred alt 2.
使用了500马力发动机,装配一门12cm主炮,这辆坦克是版本2的一个缩小版。

This option corresponds with the original draft, it would weigh 29.5-33 tonnes with little to no upgrade potential for the armour.
这个方案是符合原来的设计图的,它大约重29.5~33吨,装甲可升级性很小,或者说根本没有。 

33,3吨
长度: 6,40m
宽度: 2,84m
高度: 2,46m
乘员数量: 3
推重比: 15,1

极速: 48km/h
地面压力: 1,10kg/cm^2
离地高度: 0.4m
履带宽度: 0,6m
负重轮对数: 6

发动机:AOS-195 (500马力)

主炮: 12cm L/40
射速: 30发/分
载弹量: 28
弹夹装弹量: 14
仰角/俯角: +8/-12

炮塔装甲:(140/40/20)
车身装甲: (120/20/18)

Alt EMIL 2
EMIL 版本2 

Armed with a 15cm gun and with 10.5cm as an alternative, using a 540hp or a 665hp engine if possible. Side and frontal armour is upgradeable with the more powerful engine, this is the most realistic and preferred version with a weight of max 38 tonnes.
使用一杆15cm炮作为主炮,一杆10.5cm的炮作为替代品,使用540马力或者在条件允许下使用665马力的发动机。正面和侧面装甲在采用更大出力的发动机的情况下是可以进行升级的,这个版本最大重量可达38吨,同时也是最符合实际情况,也是呼声最高的一款。 

38吨
长度: 6,40m
宽度: 3,00m
高度: 2,56m
乘员数量: 3
推重比: 18,1

极速: 56kph
地面压力: 1,20kg/cm^2
离地高度: 0.4m
履带宽度: 0,62m
负重轮对数: 6 (有采用8对负重轮的图纸)

引擎: AV-1195: (540马力), AVS-1195 (665-668马力)

主炮: 15cm L/40, 10.5cm L/67
射速: 30发/分
载弹量: 24
弹夹装填数量:12
仰角/俯角: +8/-12

装甲 (炮塔): (170/60/30)
装甲 (车身): (145/30/18)

Alt EMIL 3
EMIL 版本3

Armament same as alt 2, only possible with the 810hp engine, therefore it’s considered somewhat unrealistic. This alternative, while bigger than the first two, has potential to mount the heaviest armour and still reach the weight of only 42 tonnes with a power to weight ratio of around 19hp/t
主炮和版本2无异,但是只有在使用810马力的发动机下才有可能移动起来,所以这个计划一直被认定是不符合现实的。这个版本比前两个版本都要大,但是可以在把装甲提高至最厚的情况依然只保持42吨的重量,推重比可以达到19马力/吨。 

42吨
长度: 6,75m
宽度: 3,05m
高度: 2,66m
乘员数量: 3
推重比: 19,5

极速: 60kph
地面压力: 1,20kg/cm^2
离地高度: 0.4m
履带宽度: 0,62m
负重轮对数: 6 (有采用8对负重轮的图纸)

发动机: AV-1790 (810马力)

主炮: 15cm L/40, 10.5cm L/67

射速: 30发/分
载弹量: 24
弹夹装填数量:12
仰角/俯角: +8/-12

装甲 (炮塔): (170/80/30)
装甲 (车身): (145/40/18)

Im sad to say we don’t actually have the schematics for these proposals (other than the 1951 version) that should have been in the documents, but the Swedish archive system isn’t very good, at least when it comes to these kinds of things…
很不幸的是,我们没有除了1951年版以外的设计的图纸,它们理应是在各种各样的档案中的,但是瑞典的档案系统不是很好,至少坦克方面的档案不是很好……

Anyhow, the next info we have is from 1955 where there is some concern over the development of the ammunition for the 15cm gun, the 810hp engine has also been procured for study and it provides the base for a Swedish developed engine.
The Swedish engine is able to produce a maximum of 723hp and it is what would have been mounted on the Krv. A prototype chassis is also under construction at Landsverk. Meanwhile, Bofors is asked to reduce the turret armour to (side 70mm)(rear 30mm)(roof 22mm)(bottom 18mm), if necessary for stabilization.
总而言之,我们的下一条信息是1955年的, 在那时对于开发15cm炮的炮弹产生了一些疑问,同时他们也获得了810马力的引擎用于研究,这也为后来他们开发瑞典制造的发动机提供了一定的基础。瑞典的发动机的最大出力可以达到723马力,它应该被安装到了Krv上。一个原型底盘这时也在兰斯韦克制造中。与此同时,博福斯(译注:又译卜福斯,请参照中文维基百科。)公司被要求在需要让坦克保持稳定的情况下,把炮塔装甲减少到侧面70mm–后方30mm–天花板22mm–底部18mm。

Requirements are also made to increase the possible elevation to +10 degrees, which increases the turret weight by 2 tonnes to 17 tonnes. This and other changes makes the tank reach the final weight of 45 tonnes.
同时提出的还有需要把俯角提高到10°的需求,这也让炮塔变重了2吨,从15吨变为17吨了。这个变动以及其他变动使得坦克的最终重量达到了45吨。 

Mock up of the 45 tonne Krv
45吨的Krv的等大模型 

The “Kranvagn” hull with a dummy turret
“机动吊车”底盘,炮塔是用来凑数的假炮塔。 

Next information we have is from 1958, by this point it is clear that the development of the ammunition for the 15cm gun is a complete failure and that the 10,5cm gun isn’t powerful enough. There is serious doubt whether the project should continue and French and English options for armament is discussed, allegedly there was also a proposal to mount a 15,5cm gun on the tank, but this too came to nothing. Shortly after, this the project got cancelled, but it would serve as a valuable basis for future Swedish armored vehicles, such as the S-tank and Bkan 1.
下一条信息是从1958年来的,在这个时候对于15cm的炮弹的开发已经认为是彻底失败了,但是10,5cm炮的火力又不够强大。此时产生了是否要继续进行该计划的重大疑问,同时他们还讨论了使用英国或者法国的主炮作为主炮的方案, 据说当时还有要把15,5cm的炮安装在坦克上的方案,但是最终也没见个影子。不久之后,这个计划被终止了,但是给瑞典未来的装甲车辆的开发打下了坚实的基础,例如S坦克以及Bkan1.
(译注:Bkan1,全称Bandkanon 1,是瑞典的一门自行火炮。服役时间:1967—2003.当时是服役中的最重的自行火炮。曾经创下可以在45秒内发射14枚炮弹的世界纪录。详情请见英文维基百科。) 

It seems clear that the built hull was part of the most ambitious plan EMIL 3, which would have been impenetrable for the IS-3 from the frontal sector with 220-240mm of effective armour. I’d like you to take this with a pinch of salt, but here are my estimated stats for the final Krv model based on what we know:
看起来已经建造好了的车身就是当时最接近成功的EMIL 版本3了,正面装甲的等效厚度达到了220~240mm,一个IS-3已经无法击穿的厚度。以下信息并不完全可靠,只是我个人基于我们所知的信息对于Krv最终版的数据的猜测。

Krv 1958

45 吨
长度: 6,75m
宽度: 3,05m
高度: 2,66m
乘员数量: 3
推重比: 16马力/吨

极速: 60kph
地面压力: 1,20kg/cm^2
离地高度: 0.4m
履带宽度: 0,62m
负重轮对数: 6

发动机: SFA F12 (723hp)

主炮: 15cm L/40, 10.5cm L/67 (有可能是法国或者英国生产的替代品?)

射速: 30发/分
载弹量: 24
弹夹装弹量:12
仰角/俯角: +10/-12

装甲(炮塔): (170/70/30)
装甲(车身): (145/40/18)

Today, that one prototype Krv hull still exists in the Swedish Arsenalen Museum, but it is not on display. Note that this hull has had 4 of its road wheels removed during suspension tests during the development of the S-tank.
现在,只有一个Krv的原型版车身存于瑞典Arsenalen(直译为:武库——译注) 博物馆,但是它并不对外展示。注意这个版本的车身的4个(亦或是4对——译注)负重轮在悬挂系统测试以及在S坦克的开发时被移除了。

Krv prototype hull today
现在的Krv原型版车身 

 

I’m not going to talk about how the tank could or should be balanced in the game, but I will say that from what we currently known the Krv project can cover tier 8-10 and no known model is viable for tier 7. This means that it would have to connect to another line or that it would be preceded by a Swedish medium line, in any case I hope you enjoyed reading this and i hope it explained the EMIL project to you.
我不想在这里讨论坦克如果进了游戏会不会”被平衡“、到底会怎么”被平衡“,但是我认为,我们现在所知的Krv计划足够填满8~10级的坑,但是现知的版本没有一个可以被塞进7级车的位置。这就意味着它要么会与另外一条线进行连接,或者会有一条瑞典中坦线作为它的前置,无论如何,我希望各位喜欢这篇文章,同时我也希望我也将EMIL计划完整的呈现了给你。

Also please do visit Renhaxue´s blog at http://tanks.mod16.org/ if you want to read the latest wot relevant news from the Swedish war archive
同时,请前去上述链接(Renhaxue的博客)以阅读最新的与WOT有关的瑞典的战争文献。 

Sources:
资料来源:
http://www.ointres.s…storia_bkan.pdf
http://www.ointres.se/strv_103.htm
http://tanks.mod16.o…paag-and-tanks/
http://tanks.mod16.o…emil-a-summary/
http://tanks.mod16.o…rrent-projects/
http://tanks.mod16.o…jects-may-1954/
http://tanks.mod16.o…s-project-6400/
http://imgur.com/a/7r9lg/all

Kranvagn: Swedish heavy tank development(机动吊车——瑞典重坦开发计划)》上有2个想法

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