How Armor Works——论装甲

来源: ┏ (゜ω゜)=☞ http://wotguru.com/how-armor-works/

翻译:Bravo、命运、逍遥龙游
校对:xml

Ever wonder why your round bounces off of a lightly armored tank even though it should have went through? I found myself wondering the same thing before I understood how World of Tanks calculates armor.  This page will hopefully dispel any questions relating to how armor is calculated, zero damage hits, and all that fun stuff that angers many in World of Tanks.
有没有想过为什么你的炮弹明明在能够击穿装甲时却被那些很薄的装甲弹开? 我在理解坦克世界的装甲机制之前也想不明白这个问题。本文将通过讲解装甲计算方法,零伤害击穿及所以这种让人恼火的情况,来消除你的疑惑 。

Effective Armor
等效装甲

Lets start off with effective armor and how it is calculated.  Many players are able to figure out and look into the amount of armor each tank has in specific locations.  Many will see that “x” tank has 150mm of armor on the front glacis so therefore if they have a gun that has 160mm-200mm penetration they would be able to damage it.  What is not fully explained is that the slope(or angle) of the armor increases the effectiveness of that armor immensely.  Effective armor refers to the thickness of the armor combined with the angle to figure out how much penetration is actually required to penetrate.  Effective armor values are only used against HE, HESH, and HEAT shells as these shells do not “normalize” but more on that later.
先从等效装甲计算开始说起。很多玩家知道自己的坦克的具体部位的装甲厚度是多少。很多时候”x”坦克拥有150mm的车体正面倾斜装甲,会让那些扛着160-200mm穿深主炮的坦克难以击穿。这个现象的简单解释就是“倾角”(或者说角度)对装甲的防护效果有极大影响。等效装甲值指的是此厚度的装甲在以一定角度倾斜后,一枚炮弹想要穿透该装甲区域所需要的穿深。该数值仅用于计算HE,HEAT,HESH等没有转正效果的炮弹,关于”转正效果“,我们稍后再谈。

For example…  That 150mm armor plate on “x” tank is actually at a 50° angle.  To find out the effective armor you need to do a little math.
举例来说… 那台“x”坦克的150mm装甲板有50°倾角。为了计算它的等效装甲你需要一点数学知识
 

Effective Armor Formula: (Thickness/cos(angle°))
等效装甲公式:(厚度/cos(倾斜角度度数))
 

看过了等效装甲,我们再来看看相关的应用吧:
1。俯角允许的情况下,找个坡卖头

 

2。装甲和角度不错的话,摆个适当的角度卖萌
(摆多少角度要看情况而论请自行研究了)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3。如何正面攻破打角度倾斜装甲的硬石头(-7之类)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In this situation you would do (150/cos(50°)) which comes out to be 233mm of effective armor.  As you can see this is much greater than the 150mm listed value and no wonder why a gun with 160mm-200mm of penetration would struggle going through it with most of it’s shots.  A good rule of thumb is that armor at 60° will double it’s effectiveness.
在本例中你要算 (150/cos(50°)),算出来的等效装甲是233mm。你会发现这比150mm的纸面数据增加很多,也难怪160mm-200mm穿深的主炮几乎不能击穿它。凭经验来讲的话,如果装甲的倾斜角度是60°,那么它的等效装甲值就是纸面的两倍。
(译注:150/(cos60°)=300) 

Normalization
转正效果
一张图概要说明咩是转正:

Normalization relates to AP, APCR, and APDS shells.  Normalization refers to when the shell hits sloped armored and “normalizes” a few degrees to try to stay on it’s initial flight path.  In World of Tanks normalization for APCR shells is 2° while AP shells is 5°.  This means that if a AP shell hits that 150mm plate from tank “x” which is at 50° the shell will “normalize” 5° so that it will only need to penetrate 150mm of armor at 45(for APCR simply do 2° instead of 5°). This lowers the armor value that the shell needs to travel through making it easier to penetrate and do damage.
转正效果适用于AP,APCR与APDS。 转正是指的在炮弹击中倾斜装甲后会被沿飞行轨迹“修正(减小)”几度的入射角。坦克世界中APCR弹的转正是2°,AP弹的转正是5°。这意味着当一发AP击中某辆“X坦克”的150mm/50°前装甲的时候,这发炮弹将被“转正”5°(APCR转正仅有2°),并仅需击穿倾角为45°的150mm装甲板的穿深即可穿透。更低的等效装甲值意味着炮弹仅需要更低的穿深便可穿透装甲板并造成伤害。 

For example: The 150mm plate at 50° when hit by an AP shell will actually be at 45° when the armor value is calculated.
例如:150mm/50°装甲被AP击中时其实际等效装甲值将会按照150mm/45°计算 

You will use the same formula to calculate the armor from before: (Thickness/cos(angle°))
你使用的装甲值计算公式和以前是一样的都是(厚度/cos(倾斜角度度数)) 

Therefore, you would end up using (150/cos(45°)) will end up with a armor value of 212mm.  This value is much lower than the 233mm effective armor value from before which does not take into account normalization.
所以你可以用150/cos(45°)计算出等效装甲值为212毫米。比在转正前理论上的等效装甲233mm的厚度低了不少。

When it comes to spaced armor a shell will continue to normalize as it penetrates through the spaced armor.  As far as compound angles where the armor is angled both horizontally and vertically the shell will only normalize against which ever angle is the highest found at that specific location.
当间隙装甲被击中时,两块装甲板都会分别转正。角度的计算也以最大的角度为准(不管是水平的还是垂直的)。 

To recap on the example earlier..  The 150mm thick armor plate at 50° would have an effective armor value of 233mm.  This means that to penetrate with HE/HEAT/HESH the shell fired would need to roll a higher penetration number than 233mm.  The same 150mm/50° armor if hit by an AP/APCR/APDS round would “normalize” to 150mm/45° giving it an armor value of 212mm.  This means that an AP/APCR/APDS round would only need to roll a penetration value of over 212mm instead of 233mm to penetrate.
我们回到刚才的栗子上。150mm厚且倾斜50°的装甲板的等效厚度为233mm。这就意味着如果你想要用HE/HEAT/HESH来击穿装甲板的话,你需要高于233mm的穿深才能够击穿(计算过±25%的浮动值之后——译注)。但是同样的一块装甲板在被AP/APCR/APDS弹击中时会“转正”为150mm厚且倾斜45°,所得出的等效厚度是212mm。这就意味着AP/APCR/APDS弹需要一个高于212mm的穿深值(同上,25%浮动——译注)就可以击穿该装甲板。

HEAT Shells
HEAT弹 

In update 8.6 for World of Tanks HEAT shells were changed.  Before this update HEAT shells would not ricochet or “bounce” off but now they do so at 80°.  HEAT shells now also loose 5% of their penetration value for every 10cm travelled after hitting the first layer of armor. This means that spaced armor/tracks on tanks will greatly hinder HEAT rounds. Overall HEAT shells remain a very viable round against non-space armor sections of tanks but hitting any type of spaced armor will usually result in the round being absorbed and negated.
在坦克世界更新8.6时修改了HEAT弹的机制。之前HEAT弹不会发生跳弹或者“被弹开了”,但是更新之后当入射角大于80°时就会发生跳弹。现在HEAT在击穿第一层装甲后,每前进10cm还会损失5%的 穿深。这意味着间隙装甲/履带将会极大的阻碍HEAT弹的击穿。所有的HEAT弹在面对坦克无间隙装甲的部分都能有效发挥作用,但是通常来讲击中任何形式的间隙装甲上都会使炮弹无效。 

Compound Angles
复合角度 

Armor which is angled both horizontally and vertically can be difficult to damage and figure out what the actually armor value is.  As stated earlier only one of the angles is normalized if it is armored both horizontally and vertically which helps armor like this retain it’s strength.
在水平方向和垂直方向上都具有一定角度的装甲和垂直装甲相比更难被击穿,其实际防护厚度也相对比较难以得出。在之前说过,使得装甲拥有更强防护能力的水平和垂直方向角度可以化简为一个角度。

The formula to figure out the armor values is…
装甲厚度的计算公式是:

Effective Armor Formula for Compound Angles: (Thickness/cos(angle1°))/cos(angle2°)
复合角度下的等效装甲厚度=(厚度/cos(角1))/ cos(角2)
 

To find the armor values for AP rounds you will use the same formula above, but only subtract the 5° normalization value off of the highest angle. Therefore, if a piece of armor is angled at 45° vertically and 30° horizontally then you will only add the normalization change to the 45° angle since it is the highest.
测算装甲对于AP的防御能力时,你可以同样的使用上述公式,只需要在最高角度上减去5°的标准值即可。因此,如果装甲在垂直和水平方向的角度分别为45°和30°,由于45°是最高角度,所以仅需要在45°上减去5°标准值。

Zero Damage Hits / Spaced Armor
零伤害击穿/间隙装甲 

Zero damage hits are a big complaint of many players both new and experienced. In most cases they are easily explained and avoidable since many occur due to spaced armor. Spaced armor is found on all tanks in the form of tracks or the mantlet.  These areas have two layers of armor while require a shell to pass through both to do damage.  Therefore, when your shell hits an area like this and “penetrates” but fails to do damage it has failed to penetrate the second layer of armor and has only passed through the outer spaced armor layer.
击穿不掉血是许多玩家经常吐槽的,包括菜鸟和老鸟。绝大多数零伤害击穿可以简单归因于击中了间隙装甲。所有坦克的履带和炮盾都是以间隙装甲的形式建模的。这些区域有两层装甲,炮弹必须要把两层装甲都击穿才能造成伤害。因此,当你的炮弹击中了有间隙装甲的区域并听到“击穿了”却没掉血,就是炮弹没有击穿第二层装甲只穿透了外部的间隙装甲层。

Tracks on all tanks add an added layer of armor and should be avoided unless you know your gun’s penetration is high enough or you want to actually track someone. Most tanks under tier 5 add 5-15mm of armor for the tracks. Tier 5 and above see light,medium,and some of the smaller heavy tanks add 20-30mm of armor for the tracks while very large/heavy tanks like the TOG II* and Maus can add up to 40mm of track spaced armor.
所以坦克的履带都是附加装甲,应该尽量避免击中履带,除非你的炮穿深足够或者就是想打断他的履带。大部分低于5级的坦克的履带有5-15mm的装甲。5级及以上的坦克,轻坦、中坦和稍小的重坦履带有20-30mm的装甲,而大型/重型坦克像TOG II和鼠式的履带则算作40mm的间隙装甲。 

On other tanks such as the T26E4 Super Pershing and IS-3 there are additional spaced armor plates on the actual hull of the tank or on the turret aside from the mantlet.  These areas also produce many zero damage penetrations since the spaced armor is easily penetrated but the armor behind it is much stronger.  For players who use the green-yellow-red indicator on the sight while aiming this can be very frustrating as that indicator might show up as green on spaced armor but in reality you’ll be shooting at very tough armor.
另一些坦克像T26E4超级潘兴和IS-3,他们在车体或者炮塔上(除了炮盾以外)有附加装甲板,击中这些区域也很容易出现零伤害击穿,因为外层间隙装甲虽然能轻易击穿但是内层的装甲更加厚。这时玩家的绿-黄-红击穿指示器就没用了,也许瞄准时击穿指示器显示间隙装甲是绿色,但实际上你需要穿透厚得多的装甲。 

To combat against spaced armor and zero damage penetrations it is best to do some simple searching for tanks which have spaced armor.  Learning where it is and how difficult it is to penetrate is key.  It is also important to teach yourself how to aim around the track areas when needed and also avoiding to shoot the mantlet areas on the turret.
为了避免击中间隙装甲和零伤害击穿,最好的办法是查询下那些坦克具有间隙装甲。了解间隙装甲的位置和击穿难度是关键。学会在需要时瞄准履带周围的区域,以及避免射中炮塔炮盾也很重要

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